In response to her people, Queen Liliʻuokalani prepared a new constitution to restore voting rights of all native Hawaiians, naturalized citizens, and to reinstate the authority of the monarch. Sugar businessmen along with U.S. Minister Stevens initiated the U.S. Marines and attempted to have Hawaiʻi annexed. Under protest Queen Liliʻuokalani writes to U.S. President Cleveland asking for a complete investigation at which time President Cleveland refers to U.S. involvement as an “an act of war” and supported the reinstatement of the Hawaiian Kingdom.
1887 Kalākaua under threat of violence was forced to sign a constitution which was designed by an American secret group called the Hawaiian League. The Hawaiian League appointed themselves as government officials in an attempt to strip King Kalākaua of his power and control the kingdom politically, economically, and limit the native Hawaiian vote.
Promulgated by His Majesty Kamehameha V., by the Grace of God, King of the Hawaiian Islands, on the Twentieth Day of August, A.D. 1864, with amendments by the Legislative Assembly
1839 Declaration of Rights and 1840 Constitution
1842 translation Constitution and Laws
The first constitution, granted by King Kamehameha III, proclaimed the rights of the people, ensuring equal protection for both the people and the chiefs. Written by Kamehameha III and the Chiefs, and enacted on June 7, 1839.